The Aviation Global Deal Group, consisting of carriers including British Airways, Cathay Pacific and Virgin Blue, are pressing for a cap and trade scheme for all international airlines, in effect making the industry a separate 'country' with binding reduction targets. Aviation was excluded from the Kyoto Protocol as it was not determined whether the country of departure or the country of arrival would be responsible for emissions. However, the sector produces approximately five percent of emissions worldwide. Virgin Blue environment manager David White says treating the aviation industry as one would be more efficient, and fairer, for all airlines. "Different countries [are] coming up with a patchwork of different taxes and levies, which at the end of the day creates confusion and tends to distort the market. And an airline could go around that country, or use different routes to minimise their obligation under such a scheme," he said. The initiative would involve auctioning permits, which could generate about $5 billion a year to fund climate change initiatives in less developed countries.